There is no doubt: judicial review of administrative decisions is the regalia, the most important instrument of legal remedy. In the European legal thinking judicial review is one of the indispensable principles of the rule of law, of the constitutionality of the legal
system. However, administration of courts was not prepared to face the permanently growing number of administrative law cases, caused by the broadening of the activities of the different public administration bodies and the deepening complexity of regulations.
All these facts led to the usage of courts as common, day to day instruments of control over administration. If we do not want to give up either the effectiveness of public administration or the dignity of court procedures, the more and more automatic administrative procedures require alternative forms of control. Some alternative forms are observed in this essay. A legal system using some or many alternative forms of control will not make government fail-safe, but it could be considered a great achievement if the number of formal judicial reviews and those of civil law trials against public bodies is sensibly decreasing. It would make government and its control more equilibrated, leastwise we hope so.
Contents in Detail
I. Forms of control
1. Control forms over the public administration
2. Legal control – the European Standard Model
3. Forms of alternative legal control
1. Legal background
2. How can be the efficiency of ombudsmen-actions measured?
3. Common features of European ombudsman-like institutions
4. Correlation of the efficiency of ombudsmen-actions with the nature of the institution
5. Possible fields of activity, where growth of efficiency is expectable
III. Non-penal role of prosecutors
1. Background: Motives and Stations
Short-cuts of Legal Cooperation within the European Union
Prosecution Services – Need for Common Standards
2. Non criminal competencies of prosecutors enter into the area of interest
3. General Overview of the non-criminal competencies
Non-penal tasks of prosecutors is the Member States
Special internal organization of Prosecution Services for non-penal tasks
Specific powers, rules or rights of prosecutors
a) Prosecutors and other parties in civil law cases
b) Prosecutors and other parties in public law cases
Judgements of the European Court of Human Rights or constitutional courts
a) Judgements of the European Court of Human Rights
b) Judgements of Constitutional Courts of the Member States
“Most important” competencies
Basic principle of non-penal competencies
4. Evaluation and observations regarding the non-penal competencies of prosecutors
Adjusted matrix of competencies
Common features of groups of states and their possible rationale
A possible explanation of extra-court (direct, own-power) administrative law competencies
Requirements of non-penal competencies
a) Court-actions in civil or administrative cases
b) Extra-court (direct, own-power) administrative law competencies
5. Principles governing non-penal competencies and new achievments
6. Administrative tasks of the Hungarian Prosecutors
IV. Courts in alternative role – civil liability
1. Right to justice concerning public law activities
Formal review and/or material remedy?
2. An example to dificulties: prosecution and material remedy
3. Civil liability in Hungary
Indemnity for the violation of personal rights
Recompense for damages
4. New perspectives
V. Conclusions regarding alternative forms of control
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