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Katalog/Vorschau / Sachbuch - Wissenschaft / Rechtswissenschaft
Civil Society in Hungary
Civil Society in Hungary
A Legal Perspective
EUR 9,00    Eur(A) 10,00   sFr 18,00
978-3-944850-44-3
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Civil Society in Hungary
Preface
One of the main reasons for which this study has been written is that there is no such paper in English addressing the historical curve and actual problems of non-governmental/nonprofit sphere. The present paper deals with the characteristics of Hungarian civil/non-profit society. The paper focuses on the legal aspects of this topic, but at the same time it takes in consideration the results and the perspectives of other sciences as well. The aim of this volume is to promote the perspectives of scholarly examination of the legal norms regulating the civil society giving viewpoints for research and offering new ways of approach.
We consider that besides the presentation of the institutions and phenomena of the civil society, it would be interesting to focus on the characteristics of those areas and Domains that have not been treated despite their significance (such an area would be the situation and problems of Hungarian civil societies existing across the borders of Hungary, the role of the churches in the non-profit sector, the problems of the gipsies’ civil society in Hungary).
The Author

Table of Contents
List of Abbreviations 9
Preface 11
Part I – Introduction 13
1. Possible ways of capturing the problems in connection with
the civil/nonprofit sphere in Hungary. The issue of the method. 15
1.1. The significance of jurisprudential approaches 15
1.2. Dangers of reviews strictly based on legal instruments 16
1.3. Beyond law and legal sciences 17
1.4. Beyond multi- and interdisciplinarity: the new aspects of social studies 19
2. The main objects of the present work,
aims and antecedents 20
2.1. Introduction 20
2.2. The scientific antecedents of the present work 21
2.3. The main characteristic of the researches done
on the development of the civil society 24
2.3.1. The effect of the civil/nonprofit sciences on the itemized regulations
and the practice of governmental bodies 25
3. General characteristics of civil/non-profit law 26
3.1. Types of regulations on civil/non-profit sector 26
3.2. The role of law in the civil/non-profit social subsystem 27
3.2.1. The possible direction of legislation 28
3.2.2. The main features of the regulation of civil society/non-profit sector 28
3.3. Conclusion 33
Part II – General and legal meaning of civil society
in Hungary from th e beginning till 1989 35
1. Introduction 37
2. Relationship of the civil society and the Church 37
3. Civil society and its deadlock 38
4. Civil renewal in Hungary. Expeditious organisations of the Enlightenment
and the Reform Era 39
5. Charity and voluntary organisations from the start of absolutism till
the end of World War II 42
6. Associations and social organisations after World War II and in the era
of state socialism 45
6.1. The notion of civil society in the Kádár-regime 48
7. Summary, i.e the main historical features of the history
of civil (voluntary) organisations in Hungary 50
6  Table of Contents
Part III – Legal and general content of th e civil society
betw een 1989 and 2010 in Hungary 55
1. The 1989 transition and the main characteristics of the subsequent period 57
1.1. Features of Hungarian public and legal politics 58
1.1.1. Multi-level Governance 61
2. The content of the main concepts after 1989:
civil or nonprofit? 62
2.1. From civil society to nonprofit organisations. Defining the concepts 62
2.1.1. General points of departure 62
2.1.2. The concept of civil society in Central and Eastern Europe
and in Hungary 64
2.1.3. The concept of civil society in Europe and the impact of the EU
on the transformation of the concept of civil society 67
2.2. The concept of nonprofit 70
2.3. The concept of civil/nonprofit 74
3. Characteristics of the civil society in Hungary after 1989, in particular its
relationship with the state 74
3.1. The most important weaknesses of the Hungarian civil/nonprofit sector 76
3.2. The attitude of the Hungarian civil society towards the state
and the public tasks after ‘89 88
4. The main data of the history and development of civil society/nonprofit
sector in the period between 1990 and 2010 91
4.1. Introduction 91
4.2. The main stages of the development of the civil society/nonprofit
sector between 1989 and 2010 in Hungary – in the light of the legislation 91
4.3. Size and composition of the nonprofit sector between 1990 and 2010 98
4.4. Functions of nonprofit organisations 100
5. The financing of civil/non-profit sector in Hungary between 1990
and 2010 100
5.1. The basic types of financing The forms of civil/nonprofit incomes
and funds in the 2000s 101
5.2. A new institution: The National Civil Fund Program 105
Part IV – The transformation of th e Hungarian Legal
System after 2010 107
1. Features of the legal system and of the system of social norms
in Hungary in the past few years 109
1.1. Giving up the concept of continuous growth and development 111
1.2. Strengthening of the natural law approach 112
2. New contents of norms created and maintained by the state 115
Part V – New trends in th e Hungarian civil
society/non-profit sector after 2010 123
1. Introduction 125
2. Directions of changes, new trends, tendencies and legal responses
given to these 125
3. Informational civil society in Hungary 126
Table of Contents  7
4. New civil and ‘borderline’ types of organizations (civil companies, alliances,
community foundations, social enterprises, etc.). 133
4.1. Civil company as a non-profit civil organization without legal personality 133
4.2. Alliance as a special form of association 134
4.3. Old organizational form – new tendencies: community foundations 134
4.4. The shift towards social economy: borderline forms with growing
importance in the field of economy and employment 136
5. The numerical growth of religious associations and the reasons behind it 139
5.1. (Civil) Society and religion in general 139
5.2. Religious movements as parts of civil society 141
5.3. The role of religious organisations in Hungarian society 142
5.4. Legal treatment of religious organisations in Hungary 143
6. The gated community as a new territorial dimension of the civil sector 147
7. The regional and cross-border aspects of the civil sector 149
8. The development of Hungarian civil society outside of Hungary 151
9. The rearrangement of the spheres affected by the civilians and by the state 155
9.1. The intervention of the state in public services previously performed
by civilians 156
9.2. Civil actors searching place in the field of public functions reserved
for the state. The example of public policing 158
9.2.1. Introduction 158
9.2.2. Civil initiatives in the field of policing 159
9.2.3. Conclusions and new directions 161
10. Roma Civil Society in Hungary 162
10.1. Introduction 162
10.2. Societal facts – Social indicators 163
10.2.1. Population 163
10.2.2. Divisions within the Hungarian Roma population 164
10.2.3. Culture 165
10.2.4. Problems 165
10.2.4.1. Fertility 167
10.2.4.2. Education 168
10.2.4.3. Unemployment – Situation on the labour market 168
10.2.4.4. Settlement segregation 169
10.2.4.5. Human Rights Situation in Europe related to the Roma 169
10.2.4.5.1. Human Rights Situation in Hungary related
to the Roma 169
10.3. Significant reasons that cause and conserve the position
of the Roma civil society 170
10.4. The composition of Roma civil society according
to the types of organisations 175
10.4.1. Building up Roma civil society from outside 175
10.4.1.1. International actors 176
10.4.1.2. Quasi nongovernmental organisations 176
10.4.1.2.1. Self-Government 177
10.4.1.2.2. Public Foundations and their successors 177
10.4.1.2.3. External support for non-Roma civil entities 178
8 Table of Contents 
10.4.2. The ‘real’ Roma civil sector 179
10.4.2.1. Human rights, community building 179
10.4.2.2. Youth and education 180
10.4.2.2.1. Roma Youth Organizations 180
10.4.2.2.2. Education and culture 181
10.4.2.3. The Roma and the Media 184
10.4.2.4. The Roma and sports 185
10.4.2.5. The Roma and religious activities 186
10.4.2.6. The Roma and economic (civil) cooperation 186
10.5. Summary and solutions 187
10.5.1. Introduction 187
10.5.2. Directions and solutions 188
11. The most frequent topics of the civil sector
in 2014 and in the future 197
Part VI – The relationship betw een civil organisations
and public administration in Hungary, with special
regard to th eir participation in legislation 201
1. Introduction 201
2. Civil participation in program making and legislation 204
2.1. General questions of civil participation in program making
and legislation 204
2.2. Civil tools in state administration directly influencing the legislator 207
2.2.1. Direct participation in program making and legislation without
membership in bodies 207
2.2.2. Participation in program making and legislation through
membership in bodies 213
2.3. Civil tools in local governmental administration which directly influence
the legislator 222
2.3.1. Legal bases of civil participation 222
2.3.2. General questions of the participation of local societies 223
2.3.3. Civil participation in program making and legislation through
membership in bodies 225
2.3.4. Civil cooperation in program making and legislation without
membership in bodies 227
3. Tools influencing the legislator indirectly,
through other bodies 231
4. Summary 231
Sources in English
 
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